3 Reasons Why You Need Passport

If you are still wondering why you need the Passport All-in-One subscription for my exam preparation, this post might help.

Reason 1.
Everyone has doubts daily.
Only HashLearn Passport gives you unlimited 1-on-1 doubt solving. 24/7.

One doubt left neglected could make all the difference in securing a top rank.

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Complete Solutions

Here is the complete solution for NCERT Class 12 Biology presented chapter wise:

 Chapters  Topic Name
 Chapter 1  

 Reproduction in Organisms

 Chapter 2    Sexual Reproduction in Flowering Plants 
 Chapter 3    Human Reproduction
 Chapter 4    Reproductive Health
 Chapter 5    Principles of Inheritance and Variation
 Chapter 6    Molecular Basis of Inheritance 
 Chapter 7    Evolution
 Chapter 8    Human Health and Disease 
 Chapter 9    Strategies of Enhancement in Food Production 
 Chapter 10    Microbes in Human Welfare 
 Chapter 11    Biotechnology: Principles and Process  
 Chapter 12    Biotechnology and it’s Applications
 Chapter 13    Organism and Populations
 Chapter 14    Ecosystem 
 Chapter 15    Biodiversity and Conservation 
 Chapter 16    Environmental Issues 



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NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions: Chapter 16 – Environmental Issues

What are the various constituents of domestic sewage? Discuss the effects of sewage discharge on a river.


Domestic sewage: It is the waste originating from the kitchen, toilet, laundry, and other sources. It contains impurities such as suspended solid (sand, salt, clay), colloidal material (fecal matter, bacteria, and cloth fiber), dissolved materials (nitrate, phosphate, calcium, sodium, ammonia), and disease-causing microbes.

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions: Chapter 13 – Organisms and Populations

How is diapause different from hibernation?

Solution: Diapause is defined as the stage of suspended development in order to cope with unfavourable conditions. Many species of zooplankton and insects show diapause to survive adverse climatic conditions during their development. 

Hibernation or winter sleep is a resting stage shown by animals to escape winters by hiding themselves in their shelters.

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions: Chapter 11 – Biotechnology: Principles and Processes

Can you list 10 recombinant proteins which are used in medical practice? Find out where they are used as therapeutics (use the internet).


Recombinant proteins Therapeutic use
DNAse Mucoviscidosis
Interleukin Cancer
Human growth hormone Dwarfism
Glucocerebrosidase Gaucher’s disease
Human insulin Diabetes
Tissue plasminogen activator Myocardial infarction
Insulin-like growth factor Childhood growth anabolic effects in adults
Erythropoietin Stimulation of production of erythrocytes
Interferon Treatment of infectious diseases like multiple sclerosis
Alpha-galactosidase A Enzyme replacement therapy


Make a chart (with diagrammatic representation) showing a restriction enzyme, the substrate DNA on which it acts, the site at which it cuts DNA and the product it produces.

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NCERT Class 12 Biology Solutions: Chapter 9 – Strategies for Enhancement in Food Production

Explain in brief the role of animal husbandry in human welfare.

Solution: Animal husbandry deals with the scientific management of livestock. The aspects it includes are feeding, breeding and control diseases to raise the population of animal livestock. It usually includes animals such as cattle, pig, sheep, etc., which are useful for humans in various ways.

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